Although floods are a natural occurrence in the water cycle, they can also be a devastating force of death and destruction. It is possible to lessen the damage caused by floods in several ways. Although floods can occur anywhere, they are most common in low-lying places, perhaps expected.
Each flood can cause a variety of harm to your house, and the extent of that damage will depend on the type of flood you’re dealing with. Knowing which sort of flood could harm your property is essential to preparing for the disaster and guaranteeing that you and your family can get to safety as quickly as possible in an emergency.
Understanding Flood Types
Because floods might involve as little as a few inches of water or several feet, their features can vary greatly. They are also able to move quickly while gradually gaining momentum. This article will discuss the various types of floods and the factors that led to their occurrence.
1. Flash Flood
Flash floods occur when heavy rains fall quickly. If the water goes deep down a dry stream bed, a flash flood can occur miles from where the rain fell. In minutes, a dry stream channel can become a raging river. Flash floods can happen anywhere, but they’re more frequent in mountainous places and tiny drainage basins.
The lack of plant and clay-rich soils in the dry, desert southwest also contributes. Densely vegetated fields are less likely to flood because plants slow water as it runs over the land.
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2. Coastal Flood
Flooding along the coast can be put into two main groups: surge flooding and sea-level rise flooding. These floods happen in places close to an open body of water. Coastal flooding is caused by tidal streams, barometric pressure, and storms. Storm surge is water pushed ashore by storm winds.
Coastal flooding can be mild or severe, depending on how strong the storm is, how fast it is moving, how big it is, how it is moving, the shape of the land onshore and offshore, and how many people are on the coast.
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3. River Flood
This type of flood occurs when the water rises above riverbanks. Any river or stream can flood. Extreme rainfall from tropical storms, long-lasting thunderstorms, coupled rainfall and snowmelt, and ice jams create river flooding. Pulses of melting snow or rain cause water to rise above riverbanks and flood nearby areas.
While river floods usually are predictable, a dam or dike failure might cause unexpected catastrophic property damage. But most river floods are caused by storms that give enough warning for people in the area to leave safely.
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4. Sewage Flood
Flooding of sewage systems or treatment facilities occurs when they are overburdened by severe rainfall, resulting in the breakdown and release of untreated sewage into nearby bodies of water. Sewage floods are the worst because sewage leaks out of pipes or drains or through toilets, sinks, or showers. Infection, diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and other ailments can result from contaminated floodwater. These floods are the most dangerous.
5. Surface Water Flooding
Surface Water, also known as Pluvial Water Flooding, is a type of flooding that occurs mainly due to excessive rainfall. Runoff from steep hillside areas that cannot absorb the water either through poor soil or impermeable surfaces might lead to it. This water eventually builds up and causes flooding in the low-lying areas.
It can also be caused by drainage overflow, which happens when the drainage system can’t handle the water from heavy rain because it isn’t big enough or hasn’t been kept up well enough, causing it to get clogged and stop working.